Building construction is very complicated task; is consist of common process such as planning, designing, cost estimation, legal consideration. Before go to planning, building construction project must consider some important aspect like the purpose of construction (commercial or residential), how much utility, financial proficiency, the demand for work, etc.
Pre-Construction Phase: Paper Work
1) Site Selection:
First of all, select the building construction site based on facilities, and environment. At the time of site selection, we should consider soil history, environment factor, availability of source of raw material. Because these factors directly affect your construction cost. So, preform site survey by surveyor, that’s report required for approval. It consists –
Archaeological, Traffic and transport, Local climate, Flood risk, Air quality, Photographic, Soil History, Boundary surveys, Structural surveys (including retained structures, underground structures and obstructions), Fire hydrants, Electrical, sewers and drainage, water supply, Soil survey.
2) preparation of Drawings:
After choosing proper land for building, contact the professional architect for preparation of good plan with detailing. Then architect contact with MEP (Mechanical, electrical and plumbing) engineers to design their part of work. And the construction drawing which is use in construction site by supervisor and engineer for execution.
3) Design and Analysis:
After preparation of plan and elevation of building youmust hire a civil engineer either you construct residential building or commercial building even individual house. Civil engineer provides the strength to your building as requirement under your budget with stability, durability of building.
Civil engineer analyses the drawing and design the material details in drawing, such as rebar, column size, beam size, which type of footing etc.
4) Soil Testing:
The soil testing is very first step and most important step before planning of construction. So, take the help of a geotechnical / civil engineer for inspection of soil and their behaviour. A civil engineer collects the soil sample from construction site and perform the required test of soil to calculate the bearing capacity of soil for choosing types of footing provide to bear the building load withstand without failure.
5) Estimation of Material Cost:
Cost estimation is also very important part of building construction. Because in this section owner will quite emotional. After, planning and structural detailing completed these details are transferred to construction management for estimate of materials quantity, required equipment and their cost required for project completion, and prepare an abstract sheet in which consist the cost of building construction. If financial resources are limited, we need to seek pre-approval for loans in advance or else you may end up in a cash crunch situation.
6) Approval of Drawings from City Development Authority:
Before start construction you should take permission by development authority and also approve your plan. In this process
Following are the list of documents required before applying for approval permission. Documents required for approval may vary from state to state as per rules of RERA, but some are essential that necessary for building construction work.
- a) Land survey report prepared by authorised surveyor.
- b) Soil test report of the construction site.
- c) Property title documents.
- d) Architectural drawings, of each section, with plan and elevation. Plan must be through registered architecture.
- e) Structural Analysis by civil engineer
The drawing of plan and elevation of sections must be certified by a registered architect or civil engineer and other reports are certified by civil engineer.
Time management is another important aspect which affect your project cost. So, you should start your construction under site engineer vigilance or hire supervisor. I suggest you to hire a site engineer than super visor because in small project a site engineer also do the work of supervisor. A site engineer checks the material quality, assure that work is done as per drawing, and also check how much material available, and arrange equipment required in next 2-3 days. Thus, does not cause any disruption at the time of construction.
If you not wish to hire site engineer you should take advise from consultant. If your project is large, you should contact to a contractor or builder for better execution. Before signing the contract document, you should investigate the information about the performance of builder. The contract document should cover layout and work details along with the construction cost, material quantity and quality, completion time and payment mode (construction base or in regular interval).
Building Construction Phase:
1) Site preparation & Marking Layout:
The construction site must be prepared and make ideal for construction purpose. In preparation of land remove the upper layer of soft soil until found the hard strata. Site preparation also involve land excavation, prepare drainage system, levelling, test drilling and other land preparation. Also involve the removing demolition or wrecking of buildings and other structures, clearing of building sites.
Foundation is the main part of building that transfer the load of building from superstructure to earth. The foundation is lower most part of building. Before start the footing, laying a layer of PCC (Plain cement concrete) in the dug portion. After the PCC work start the placing of footing as per design in construction drawing.
3) Plinth beam:
Plinth is part of the superstructure; it is placed between the tie beam at the finished ground level and the floor level of the building. After the completion of foundation work ground beam formwork preparation is started and poured with concrete.
4) Damp Proof Coarse:
After plinth must provide a layer of damp proof coarse (DPC) material laid down at floor level to protect walls from moisture. Thickness of DPC as per provisional codes. In IS code provision thickness of concrete layer is of 1 inch.
Now forming the frame structure of building means placing the column and beams (support to slab, for uniformly distribute the load to each columns). Columns are built up to bottom of slab level and place the beam just below the slab.
Site engineer should check rebar placing at joint of column, beam and slab otherwise slab movement will developed after some time.
6) Masonry Work And lintel:
As column and beam framework completed brick laying is started means masonry work. Currently different type of materials available in market for masonry work such as traditional red bricks, concrete blocks (AAC blocks), fly ash bricks, etc. Placing the door frame and window frame with masonry work or provide the spacing for door, window, ventilation etc. An RCC beams are laid down on the top of provides opening for window and door to protect from structure load.
7) Formwork & Slab:
After all the completion of framework, next part is placing the slab. So, that formwork (Also known as Shuttering) is done as per the dimensions mentioned in the drawing for slab construction. Then place the reinforcement as per drawing schedule then pour the concrete over reinforcement.
Note – Properly check the reinforcement, and clear cover (protect to steel bar from moisture). Site engineer / supervisor do the attention on labour for placing the concrete (Not through more provisional height) and assure that compaction is done properly on concrete to remove air voids.
Curing is most important process; the concrete surface is kept wet for certain time for the purpose of preventing the loss of moisture from the concrete to promote the hardening of cement and gaining strength.
Then perform the finishing work –
1) MEP Work:
Form work is de-shuttering after 14 days of slab casting. MEP work is referring to mechanical, electrical, and plumbing work on building. Before finishing mechanical work, electrical wiring, and plumbing work should complete. Some work is performed before plastering – placing of wire pipe, and water supply pipe, point and pipe end left out such that later they can be finished with the electric fitting and plumbing fixtures after plastering.
Now plastering of walls begins. Mortar used for plaster is generally of 1:3 for exterior walls and 1:4 is for internal walls. Thickness of plaster layer should not be more than 0.75inch. Cure the surface about 7 days. So that, plaster gain proper strength.
To prevent the walls from rising of dampness also done the waterproofing. And also apply the cladding (material applied over another to provide a skin or layer) in exterior walls to provide thermal insulation and weather resistance.
3) Fixing of Doors and Windows:
After complete the whole structure, start the finishing work on building. Place the doors and windows as per drawing.
4) Terrace and Roof Finishing:
Now prepare the roof, but before completing the roof double protection waterproofing must be applied on top of the slab. Then complete the roof finish and terrace.
5) Floor & Interior Finishing:
At the last finish the floor work, flooring is done with tiles or placing marbles. Later on, the walls are painted or textured. Majorly tiles are laid in the bathrooms and kitchen area. First the wall tiles are fixed after which the floor tiles are fixed. For flooring works, granite, marble, tiles, epoxy are also used.
NOTE – 1. Curing – Curing is most important part of construction process, if curing is not done properly then cement not gain strength at high end. And structure is remaining weak, cracks are developed soon, building less durable, weak in compressive strength and flexural strength. So, that curing done properly, in each component of structure where cement was used.
2. Waterproofing – Water-proofing is done on certain type of work such as water storage tank, basement walls, swimming pool, sewage unit, floor, roof, exterior walls, and bathroom attached walls etc. It prevents from seepage, leakage and damp caused by capillary absorption of moisture in cement, mortar and concrete.